The complainant claims citizenship of Botswana under the following
circumstances: His father was a citizen of Botswana who went to work in
South Africa. While in South Africa, he married and the complainant was an
issue of that marriage. Complainant's mother died shortly after birth and
complainant was sent to Botswana where he grew up. Complainant therefore
claims Botswana citizenship by descent.
 The complainant alleges that in 1978 he was one of the founders and
leaders of the Botswana National Front opposition party. He alleges it was
as a result of these activities that he was declared a "prohibited
immigrant" by the Botswana government.
 On 17 October 1978, complainant was arrested and handed over to the
South African Police, without being brought before any tribunal. He already
had a court action in process in Botswana concerning a Temporary Occupation
Permit, but due to his deportation was unable to attend the hearing.
 When he returned to Botswana, he was arrested and deported again without
hearing. After his third entry back into Botswana he was charged and
convicted of unlawful entry and being a prohibited immigrant. He was serving
a ten-month sentence and appealing his conviction when he was deported for a
fourth time to South Africa, before his last appeal could be heard.
 Because the complainant was not a citizen of South Africa, he was forced
to live in the "homeland" of Bophuthatswana. He remained there for seven
years, until the government of Bophuthatswana issued a deportation order
against him, which landed him in the no-man's land between Bophuthatswana
and Botswana, where he remained for five weeks before he was admitted to
Botswana on a humanitarian basis. He lived there on three-month resident
permits, renewable at the absolute discretion of the minister concerned,
until June 1995.
 Complainant does not possess, nor has he ever possessed, a South African
passport or Bophuthatswanan nationality.
 Complainant alleges he has suffered financial losses, since much of his
property and possessions was confiscated by the government. He cannot work
because he is not permitted to, and is in constant danger of being deported.
Complainant has made several efforts to assert his Botswana nationality and
an appeal from his prison sentence is still pending, but has not been heard.
He presently has no funds to continue in the courts.
 He is asking the Government of Botswana to recognise him as a citizen by
 The communication is dated 3 March 1993 and is sent by John K. Modise.
 At the 13th Session in March 1993, the Commission was seized of the
 On 12 April 1993, a notification of the communication was sent to the
 At the 17th session the communication was declared admissible. It was
found to be a fit subject for settlement by the Commissioner responsible for
Botswana, that is, Commissioner Janneh. The parties were notified of this
 The government of Botswana was invited to consider the possibility of
an amicable resolution.
 On 19 October 1995 the Commission received a note verbale by fax from
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Botswana, stating that Mr. Modise had
been granted citizenship by the President. The citizenship certificate was
posted to him on 26 June 1995.
 On 30 November 1995 a copy of this note verbale was sent to Mr.
Odinkalu with a letter asking if the granting of citizenship could be
considered an amicable resolution of the case.
 On 14 December 1995 the Commission received a letter from Mr Chidi
Odinkalu, the complainant's counsel, indicating that he did not consider
that a friendly settlement had been reached and requesting further action on
the part of the Commission.
 On 9 October 1996 the Secretariat of the Commission received a fax from
Interights with a copy of a letter from Mr. Modise stating that all local
remedies have been exhausted, and that even though the Government of
Botswana had promised Commissioner Dankwa that they would issue a passport
to Mr. Modise, his application to get a passport had still not been approved
by the authorities.
 Article 56.5 of the African Charter requires that communications shall
be admissible only if the complainant has exhausted the remedies available
domestically, provided these are not unduly prolonged. Other international
human rights instruments have similar provisions.
 The complainant affirms that he has been trying without success to
establish his Botswana nationality legally since 1978 and his final appeal
is still pending, 16 years later.
 In this case the complainant brought his first action over 16 years
ago, and the legal process was repeatedly interrupted the summary
deportations of which he was the victim. The national legal procedures were
 All the preceding elements lead to the conclusion that the complainant
has exhausted all local remedies.
 For all these reasons the Commission declared the communication
 The Republic of Botswana ratified the African Charter on 17 July 1986.
Although some of the events described in the communication took place before
ratification, their effects continue to the present day. The current
circumstances of the complainant is a result of a present policy decision
taken by the Botswana government against him.
 The complainant argues that he has been unjustly denied Botswana
citizenship. In the brief submitted by the complainant's representative, it
is explained that the complainant was born in Cape Town to a father and
mother both from the Goo-Modultwa Ward in Kanye of the Bangwaketse in the
former Protectorate of Bechuanaland.
 The complainant furthermore alleges that in 1978 he was one of the
founding members and leaders of the opposition party, National Front of
Botswana. As a consequent of his activities he was declared an prohibited
immigrant and expelled to South Africa, which also expelled him several
times, with all the disturbing consequences described above.
 Botswana became an independent country in 1966. Section 20 of its
"Every person who, having been born in the former Protectorate of
Bechuanaland, is on 29 September 1966, a citizen of the United Kingdom and
Colonies or a British protected person shall become a citizen of Botswana on
30th September, 1966."
 The complainant thus alleges that as a matter of law, by birth, he is a
citizen of Botswana. The Government has nowhere contested the facts on which
the complainant bases his claim.
 Article 7 of the African Charter specifies:
"1. Every individual shall have the right to have his cause heard. This
comprises: (a) the right to an appeal to competent national organs against
acts of violating his fundamental rights as recognized and guaranteed by
conventions, laws, regulations and customs in force;..."
 To this day, no court has remedied the effects of the complainant's
original deportation, which constitutes a flagrant violation of Article 7.
 The complainant's defence against deportation rests on the fact that he
is by law a citizen of Botswana. In his trial for illegal re-entry into
Botswana, this defence was not considered by the court. To this day, there
is no resolution in the courts of this essential issue. This constitutes
another violation of Article 7.
 Article 5 of the African Charter states:
"Every individual shall have the right to the respect of the dignity
inherent in a human being and to the recognition of his legal status. All
forms of exploitation and degradation of man particularly... torture, cruel,
inhuman or degrading punishment and treatment shall be prohibited."
 The complaint was deported to South Africa and was forced to live for
eight years in the "homeland" of Bophuthatswana, and then for another seven
years in "No-Man's Land", a border strip between the former south African
Homeland of Bophuthatswana and Botswana. Not only did this expose him to
personal suffering, it deprived him of his family, and it deprived his
family of his support. Such inhuman and degrading treatment offends the
dignity of a human being and thus violates Article 5.
 The Government of Botswana, without acknowledging any responsibility
did take some steps to remedy the complainant's situation by granting him a
certificate of citizenship in June 1995, under section 9(2) of the
Citizenship Act of Botswana.
 However, subsequent information from the complainant indicates that the
citizenship granted is in several ways inferior to citizenship by birth.
Citizenship by birth is a right which cannot be taken away, whereas
citizenship by registration is a privilege that is granted only at
discretion of state officials.
 When the complainant applied for an international passport to enable
him to travel abroad for medical treatment, the Government of Botswana
issued him a "Local Passport", #L213968, on 6 July 1995. This passport
restricted his travelling to countries on mainland Africa south of Latitude
15 South. It expired on 5 January 1996.
 Furthermore, a person who acquires citizenship under section 9(b) of
the citizenship act, rather than by birth, is considered a citizen from the
time of granting only. This means that prior to his registration the
complainant was a stateless person, and his children are in the same
 Article 13 of the African Charter stipulates:
"1. Every citizen shall have the right to participate freely in the
government of his county, either directly or through freely chosen
representatives in accordance with the provisions of the law. 2. Every
citizen shall have the right of equal access to the public service of his
 Citizens by registration cannot be candidates for the presidency of the
Republic. Taken together with his first deportation, soon after he founded
an opposition political party, it appears that this is an action designed to
hamper his political participation. Granting the complainant citizenship by
registration has effectively deprived him of what is for him, one of the
most valuable rights that Botswana citizenship affords.
 Elements in the file show that the complainant did obtain Botswana
nationality, but he is not satisfied. The Commission considers, however,
that the other rights which the complainant is seeking, could be obtained
through local judicial action.
 If issues related to the acquisition of full citizenship are not
resolved by competent domestic judicial authorities, or in the event of new
facts coming to light, Mr. Modise can resort once more to the Commission.
 FOR THE ABOVE REASONS, THE COMMISSION
Takes note of the granting of Botswana citizenship to Mr. Modise; ñalls upon
the Government of Botswana to continue with its efforts to amicably resolve
this communication in compliance with national laws and with the provisions
of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.